Renal cell carcinoma. Edited by Nizar M. Tannir, Oxford University Press, 2014
The trend of increasing incidence rates of kidney cancer has been observed since the 1970s in the United States. The reason for this increase is not clear, although increasing rates of obesity and associated hypertension may partially explain this upward trend. Recent GWASs have identified three genetic susceptibility loci for RCC, and more common susceptibility SNPs are expected to be found from pooled analysis of GWASs. Next-generation sequencing is expected to provide significant biological insight into renal carcinogenesis. Prospective studies are needed for the discovery and validation of intermediate biomarkers. Additionally, the study of the gene–environment interaction in RCC etiology is an important next step. Finally, a comprehensive risk assessment model that integrates modifiable risk factors, genetic susceptibility loci, intermediate phenotypic biomarkers, circulating biomarkers, and gene–environment interaction is needed to move toward personalized risk assessment and cancer prevention.
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