Immune checkpoint inhibition in renal cell carcinoma

Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)


  1. Introduction
  2. Proof of principle: immunotherapy with cytokine therapy
  3. T cell co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory pathways
  4. Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen-4 (CTLA-4)
  5. Programmed Cell Death-1 (PD-1)
  6. Mechanism of immune evasion by RCC
  7. Differences between PD-1 pathway-blocking agents
  8. Early studies: efficacy and toxicity
    • Anti-PD-1 blockade in RCC
    • Anti-PD-L1 blockade in RCC
    • Other PD-1 pathway-blocking therapies in development in RCC
  9. Role of PD-L1 expression in RCC
  10. Increasing response rates with combination therapies
    • Nivolumab + ipilimumab
    • PD-1 plus antiangiogenic agents in RCC
  1. Future clinical considerations
  2. References
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