Biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma

Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)


  1. Definitions and categories of cancer biomarkers
  2. The challenge and opportunity of cancer biomarker development
  3. The importance of RCC biomarker development
  4. Understanding the VHL pathway for RCC biomarker development
    • VHL
    • pVHL
    • HIF
    • HIF-responsive genes
    • AKT/mTOR/HIF pathway
    • Other 3p genes involved in RCC
  5. The development of RCC biomarkers in clinical decision-making
    • Prognostic biomarkers
      • Clinical biomarkers
      • Histological biomarkers
      • Genetic biomarkers
      • Gene expression profiles
      • Hybrid strategies
      • Copy-number analysis
      • SNP genotyping
      • VHL and HIF as prognostic biomarkers
      • Circulating cells
    • Predictive biomarkers
      • Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy
        • RCC subtyping
        • CAIX
        • Genetic studies
        • PD1
      • Predictive biomarkers for VEGF-targeted therapy
        • Clinical biomarkers
        • VHL mutation
        • HIF levels
        • VEGF/soluble VEGF receptor levels
        • Cytokines and angiogenic factors
      • Predictive biomarkers for mTOR-targeted therapy
        • RCC subtyping
        • PTEN loss
        • Phospho AKT/phospho S6K
        • Genetic biomarkers
      • Predictive biomarkers for other targeted therapies
        • MET
  6. Biomarkers on the horizon
  7. The future of RCC biomarkers development
  8. References

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