Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)
Thousands of biomarkers are currently in the developmental pipeline as potential markers for cancer detection, diagnosis, prediction of response, and prognosis. Fewer than 25 biomarkers have been approved by the FDA for monitoring response to treatment or for determining recurrence of cancer [1, 2]. Currently, there is no biomarker that is FDA-approved for RCC screening, staging, monitoring, or prognosis.
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