The development of RCC biomarkers in clinical decision-making

Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)


While biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis remain at an early stage of development, more advances have been made for prognostic and predictive biomarkers of RCC. Here we will focus our discussion on these markers.

  • Prognostic biomarkers
    • Clinical biomarkers
    • Histological biomarkers
    • Genetic biomarkers
    • Gene expression profiles
    • Hybrid strategies
    • Copy-number analysis
    • SNP genotyping
    • VHL and HIF as prognostic biomarkers
    • Circulating cells
  • Predictive biomarkers
    • Predictive biomarkers for immunotherapy
      • RCC subtyping
      • CAIX
      • Genetic studies
      • PD1
    • Predictive biomarkers for VEGF-targeted therapy
      • Clinical biomarkers
      • VHL mutation
      • HIF levels
      • VEGF/soluble VEGF receptor levels
      • Cytokines and angiogenic factors
    • Predictive biomarkers for mTOR-targeted therapy
      • RCC subtyping
      • PTEN loss
      • Phospho AKT/phospho S6K
      • Genetic biomarkers
    • Predictive biomarkers for other targeted therapies
      • MET

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