The future of RCC biomarkers development

Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)

Unprecedented progress has been made for RCC biomarker development. However, challenges remain. Most clinical biomarkers need further clinical validations, especially in prospective studies. The bulky panel of potential genetic biomarkers, which we obtained from genomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and microRNA profiling, require further analysis and validation to be useful. Newer biomarkers detectable in serum, urine, and other body fluid need fine-tuning to be isolated from confounding factors. The advancement of therapy for RCC to a new era will undoubtedly involve individualized treatment using biomarkers.

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