Kidney cancer. Principles and practice. Second edition. Primo N. Lara, Jr. Eric Jonasch (Editors). Springer International Publishing (2015)
RCC is most frequently diagnosed among people aged 55–64, with a median age of diagnosis being 64 years . According to the 2007–2011 SEER database, approximately 1.2% of patients were diagnosed under age 20, 1.8% between 20 and 34, 6% between 35 and 44, 16.4% between 45 and 54, 26.2% between 55 and 64, 25.2% between 65 and 74, 17.4% between 75 and 84, and 5.7% 85+ years of age .
The incidence of RCC is more common in men [6, 7] with a reported male to female ratio of 1.5:1 . Recent analysis from the SEER database reported that men were diagnosed with larger tumors with a higher grade as compared to women . Analysis of the SEER database also showed that the median overall survival from time of diagnosis was 130 months for females versus 110 months for males (p < 0.0001). In comparison of males and females, 5-year cancerspecific survival was 78% versus 81%, and 5-year overall survival was 65% versus 69% (p < 0.0001) .
African-Americans have the highest incidence of RCC compared to other racial groups [6, 9, 10], along with a higher mortality rate secondary to this disease. In a retrospective cohort study done on patients in the SEER and Medicare databases, overall survival was worse for blacks than whites even after adjustment for demographic and cancer prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07–1.25). This lower survival rate could be explained by the increased number of comorbid health conditions and the lower rate of surgical treatment among black patients .
Presentation with non-clear subtypes of RCC, such as papillary RCC, has been noted to be higher in African-Americans .
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