Список акронимов и аббревиатур английского языка

βAPN — β-Aminopropionitrile

γ-IR — γ-Irradiation

ω-3 PUFA — Omega-3 polyunsaturated

AACR — American Association for Cancer Research

ABC — ATP-binding cassette

ABCG2 — ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2

ACKR3 — Atypical chemokine receptor 3

ADAM — A disintegrin and a metalloprotease domain

ADCC — Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity

ADT — Androgen-deprivation therapy

AFP — Α-fetoprotein

AhR — Aryl hydrocarbon receptor

AIDS — Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

AJCC — American Joint Cancer Committee

ALDH — Aldehyde dehydrogenase

ALDH1 — Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1

ALK — Activin receptor-like kinase

ALL — Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

AML — Acute myeloid leukemia

AML-CFU — acute myeloid leukemia–colony-forming unit

AMPK — Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

ANGPT1 — Angiopoietin1

Ang-1 — Angiopoietin-1

ANKRD28 — Ankyrin repeat domain 28

APC — Adenomatous polyposis coli

APH1 — Anterior pharynx-defective 1

APL — Acute promyelocytic leukemia

AR — Androgen receptor

ARC — Association pour la recherche sur le cancer

Arx — Aristaless-related homeobox

AT1 — Alveolar type 1

ATM — Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated

ATO — Arsenic trioxide

ATRA — All-trans retinoic acid

AβPP — Amyloid β-protein precursor

B

6-BG — O(6)-Benzylguanine

 

B-ALL — B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

B-CLL — B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia

BAA — Bodipy-aminoacetate

BAAA — Bodipy-aminoacetaldehyde

BADJs — Bronchoalveolar duct junctions

BCC — Basal cell carcinoma

BCECF — 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester

BCL-2 — B-cell lymphoma protein 2

Bcl-Xl — B-cell lymphoma-extra large

BCNU — Bis-chloroethylnitrosourea

BCRP — Breast cancer resistance protein

BCRP1 — Breakpoint cluster region pseudogene 1

BCSC — Breast cancer stem cells

bFGF — Basic fibroblast growth factor

BiCNU — Bis-chloroethylnitrosourea

BiTEs — Bispecifi c T-cell engagers

BKCa — Calcium-dependent potassium channels

BM — Bone marrow

BMI1 — B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog

BMDCs — Bone marrow-derived cells

BMP — Bone morphogenetic protein

BPH — Benign prostatic hyperplasia

bsAbs — Bispecifi c antibodies

C

CACs — Centroacinar cells

CAD — C-terminal activation domain

CAFC — Cobblestone area forming assay

CAF — Cancer-associated fi broblast

CAIX — Carbonic anhydrase isoform 9

CALLA — Common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen

cAMP — Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CAN — Copy number alterations

CAPP-Seq — Cancer personalized profi ling by deep sequencing

CAR — Chimeric antigen receptor

CARM1 Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

CBC — Crypt base columnar cell

CBP — CREB-binding protein

CCL2 — C-C motif chemokine ligand 2

CCR — Chemokine receptor

CCSP — Clara cell secretory protein

CD — Cytosine deaminase

CD34 — Cluster of differentiation protein 34

CD133 — Cluster of differentiation protein 133

Cdc42 — Cell division control protein 42 homolog

CDF — Difluorinated curcumin

CDK2 — Cyclin-dependent kinase 2

CE — Clonal evolution (model)

CEA — Carcinoembryonic antigen

CFP — Cyan fluorescent protein

CFU-S — colony-forming unit–spleen

CGRP — Calcitonin gene-related peptide

Chk — Cell cycle checkpoint kinase

CIK — Cytokine-induced killer cells

CK-20 — Cytokeratin-20

CLL — Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

CLL-1 — C-type lectin-like molecule-1

CLMP — Common lymphoid-myeloid progenitor

CLP — Common lymphoid progenitor

CML — Chronic myeloid leukemia

CMP — Common myeloid progenitor

CNA — Copy number aberration

CNS — Central nervous system

coA — Coactivator

coR — Corepressor

COX — Cyclooxygenase

CQ — Chloroquine

CRC — Colorectal cancer

CREB — cAMP response element-binding protein

CRISPR/Cas9 — Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9

CRLF2 — Cytokine receptor-like factor 2

CRPC — Castrate-resistant prostate cancer

CSC — Cancer stem cell

CSDC2 — Cold-shock domain-containing protein C2

CSLC — Cancer stem-like cell

CTC — Circulating tumor cell

CTLA4 — Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4

CTSD — Cathepsin D

CXCL — C-X-C motif chemokine ligand

CXCR — C-X-C motif chemokine receptor

CYP — P450 oxidase

D

DAG — Diacylglycerol

DAPT — N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester

DBH — Debromohymenialdisine

DC-TICs — Delayed contributing tumor-initiating cells

DCIS — Ductal carcinoma in situ

DCs — Dendritic cells

DGCR8 — DiGeorge critical region 8

Dhh — Desert hedgehog

DLLs — Delta-like ligands

DMAG — Demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride

DMEM — Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium

Dnmt — DNA methyltransferase

Dn — Dominant-negative

DNER — Delta and notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor

DNMT — DNA methyltransferase

dpp protein — decapentaplegic protein

 

DR — Death receptor

DSB — Double-stranded break

Dsh — Dishevelled

dsRNA — Double-stranded RNA

DTC — Disseminated tumor cell

Dvl – Dishevelled

E

EBV — Epstein-Barr virus

EC — embryonal carcinoma

EC — Endothelial cells

ECCs — embryonic carcinoma cells

ECM — Extracellular matrix

EdU — 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine

EFNA1 — Ephrin A1

EGF — Epidermal growth factor

EGFR — Epidermal growth factor receptor

EGFP — Enhanced green fluorescent protein

EGFRvIII — Epidermal growth factor receptor variant 3

ELAM1 — Endothelial adhesion molecule 1

ELDA — Extreme limiting dilution analysis

EMP — Erythro-myeloid progenitor

EMT — Epithelial to mesenchymal transition / epithelial-mesenchymal transition

EpCAM — Epithelial cell adhesion molecule

EPCs — Endothelial precursor cells

ER — Endoplasmic reticulum

ER — Estrogen receptor

ERBB2 — Erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2

ERG — ETS-related gene

ERK — Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

ES — Embryonic stem cell

ESA — Epithelial-specific antigen

ESCs — Embryonic stem cells

ESL-1 — E-selectin ligand 1

ETPs — Early thymocyte progenitors

FACS — Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

FADD — FAS-associating death domain

FAK — Focal adhesion kinase

FAL1 — Focally amplified lncRNA on chromosome 1

FAP — Familial adenomatous polyposis

Fbw7 — F-box and WD40 repeat domain-containing protein 7

Fc — Fragment-crystallizable

FGF — Fibroblast growth factor

FIH-1 — Factor-inhibiting hypoxia 1

FITC — Fluorescein isothiocyanate

Flt3 — FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3

FKHR — Forkhead transcription factor

Foxo1 — FOX — Forkhead box protein

FOXOA1 — Forkhead box O1A

FRb — Folate receptor b

Fu — Fused

FU — Fluorouracil

FUOX — Fluorouracil and oxaliplatin

Fz — Frizzled

G

G proteins — Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins

G-6-PD — Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

GBM — Glioblastoma

G-CSF — Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

GAGs — Glycosaminoglycans

GANT — Gli antagonist

GBM — Glioblastoma multiforme

GDA — Germline-derived allograft

GEM — Genetically engineered mouse

GFAP — Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GFP — Green fluorescent protein

GM-CSF — Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor

GNA15 — Guanine nucleotide-binding protein, α 15

GPCRs — G protein-coupled receptors

GRK — G protein-coupled receptor kinase

GSCs — Glioblastoma stem cells

GSEA — Gene set enrichment analysis

GSH — Glutathione

GSIs — γ-Secretase inhibitors

GSK3β — Glycogen synthase kinase 3β

GTP — Guanosine-5′-triphosphate

GTPase — Guanosine triphosphate hydrolase

H

HA — Hyaluronic acid

HB-EGF — Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

HCC — Hepatocellular carcinoma

HDAC — Histone deacetylase

HDACi — Histone deacetylase inhibitor

HER2 — Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2

Hes1 — Hairy enhancer of split 1

HGF — Hepatocyte growth factor

Hh — Hedgehog

HIF — Hypoxia inducible factors

HIF-1α — hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha

Hip1 — Hedgehog-interacting protein 1

HIV — Human immunodeficiency virus

HLA — Human leukocyte antigen

HNRNPK — Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K

HNSCC — Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

HoxB — Homeobox protein

HOTAIR — HOX antisense intergenic RNA

HPC — Homeostatic property cluster

HPCs — Hematopoietic progenitor cells

HPI — Hedgehog pathway inhibitor

HPV — Human papillomavirus

HR — Homologous recombination

HRE — Hypoxia response element

HSCs — Hematopoietic stem cells

HSP — Heat shock protein

 

HSPC — Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

hTERT — Human telomerase reverse transcriptase

HUVEC — Human umbilical vein endothelial cells

I

IAP — Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins

IBC — Inflammatory breast cancer

IBD — Irritable bowel disease

ICAM1 — Intracellular adhesion molecule 1

ICD — Intracellular domain

ICL — Idiopathic CD4+ T-cell lymphocytopenia

ICM — inner cell mass

IDH1 — Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1

IEX-1L — Immediate early response gene X-1

Ig — Immunoglobulin

IGF — Insulin-like growth factor

IGF-IR — Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor

Ihh — Indian hedgehog

IL — Interleukin

IL-1R1 — IL-1 receptor 1

IL-1Ra — IL-1 receptor antagonist

IL-1Rap — IL-1 receptor accessory protein

IL-3R — Interleukin-3 receptor

IM — Imatinib mesylate

INCa — Institut National du Cancer

INFα — Interferon alpha

iNOS — Inducible nitric oxide synthase

INXS — Intronic BCL-XS-inducing lncRNA

IP3 — Inositoltrisphosphat

iPSCs — Induced pluripotent stem cells

IR — Ionizing radiation

IRAK — Interleukin-1 receptor-activated protein kinase

IRES — Internal ribosome entry site

iPS cell — Induced pluripotent stem cell

ISCs — Intestinal stem cells

ITAC — Interferon-inducible T-cell α-chemoattractant

ITGA6 — Integrin-alpha-6

ITD — Internal tandem duplication

IWPs — Inhibitors of Wnt production

IWRs — Inhibitors of Wnt response

JAGs — Jagged ligands

Jak — Janus kinase

JNK — c-Jun N-terminal kinases

K

kDa — Kilodalton

KLF4 — Kruppel-like factor 4

KRAS — V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog

L

L1CAM — L1 cell adhesion molecule

LDA — Limiting dilution analysis

LDH — L-Lactate dehydrogenase

LEF — Lymphoid enhancer factor

 

LGR5 — Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5

lincRNAs — Long intergenic ncRNAs

LIP — Liver-enriched inhibitory protein

LMO — LIM-only domain

lncRNAs — Long noncoding RNAs

LOX — Lysyl oxidase

LRCs — Label-retaining intestinal stem cells

LRP — Lipoprotein receptor-related protein

LSCs — Leukemic stem cells

LTC-IC — Long-term culture-initiating cell assay

LTTICs — Long-term tumor-initiating cells

M

M-CSF — Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

mAb — Monoclonal antibody

MAC — Magnetic-activated cell sorting

MADM — Mosaic analysis with double marker

MALAT1 — Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1

MAML — Mastermind-like

MAPK — Mitogen-activated protein kinases

MaSCs — Mammary stem cells

MCAo — Middle cerebral artery suture occlusion

MCP2 — Monocyte chemoattractant protein 2

MDR — Multidrug resistance

MDR-1 — Multidrug resistance protein 1

MDS — Myelodysplastic syndrome

MDSCs — Myeloid-derived suppressor cells

MECP2 — Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2

MEK — Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MET — Mesenchymal to epithelial transition

MetSCs — Metastatic stem cells

MGMT — Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

MGUS — Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

MHC — Major histocompatibility complex

MI — Myocardial ischemia

MIB — Mindbomb

MIP — Macrophage inflammatory protein

miRNA — MicroRNA

MM — Multiple myeloma

MMP — Matrix metalloproteinase

MnSOD — Manganese superoxide dismutase

MLL1–AF9 — ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 or MLLT3

MPP — Multipotent progenitor

MRD — Minimal residual disease

MRP — Multidrug resistance proteins

MSCs — Mesenchymal stem cells

Msi-1 — Musashi 1

Mt — Mutant

mTOR — Mammalian target of rapamycin

 

MTX — Methotrexate

MUC1 — Mucin-1

Myc — v-Myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog

N

N-Cor — Nuclear receptor corepressor

NANOG — Homeobox transcription factor Nanog

NATs — Natural antisense transcripts

NBD — Nucleotide-binding domain NCSTN — Nicastrin

NEBs — Neuroepithelial bodies

NET — Neuroendocrine tumor

NEURL — Neuralized

NF-kB — Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells

NF1 — Neurofibromin 1

Ngn3 — Neurogenin 3

NHEJ — Nonhomologous end-joining

NHL — Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

NICD — Notch intracellular domain

NFκβ — Nuclear factor kappa β

NK — Natural killer

NKT — Natural killer T

NO — Nitric oxide

NOD — Nonobese diabetic

NOD-SCID — nonobese diabetic–severe combined immunodeficiency

NOG — NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull

NRF1 — Nuclear respiratory factor 1

NRPs — Neuropilins

NSAID — Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug

NSC — Neural stem cells

NSCLC — Non-small cell lung cancer

nu/nu — Nude mouse (Foxn1nu/Foxn1nu)

O

OCT — Octamer-binding transcription factor

OE — Overexpression

OPN — Osteopontin

OS — Overall survival

OVV — Oncolytic vaccine virus

OX – Oxaliplatin

P

P-CYP — Copolymer-cyclopamine conjugate

P-DTX — Copolymer-docetaxel conjugate

P-gp — P-glycoprotein

PACT — Protein activator of PKR

PanIN — Pancreatic intraepithelial lesion

PARP — Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase

PAUF — Pancreatic adenocarcinoma upregulated factor

PAX — Paired box gene

 

PBMC — Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PCa — Prostate cancer

PcG — Polycomb group

PCGF4 — Polycomb group RING finger protein 4

PCSC — Prostate cancer stem cells

PDAC — Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

PDGF — Platelet-derived growth factor

PDGFRA — Platelet-derived growth factor receptor A

PDH — Prolyl hydroxylases

PDK1 — Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1

PDX — Patient-derived xenograft

Pdx1 — Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1

PEN2 — Presenilin enhancer 2

PF — Platelet factor

PG – Prostaglandin

PGK — phosphoglycerate kinase

Ph — Philadelphia

PI3K — Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase

PIP2 — Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate

PKA — Protein kinase A

PKC — Protein kinase C

PKR — Protein kinase R

PLC — Phospholipase C

PlGF — Placental growth factor

PMA — Phorbol-12-myristat-13-acetate

PML — Promyelocytic leukemia protein

PORCN — Porcupine

PPAR — Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

PR — Progesterone receptor

Pre-miRNAs — Precursor microRNAs

Pri-miRNAs — Primary microRNAs

PRC2 — Polycomb repressive complex 2

PROM1 — Prominin 1

PSA — Prostate-specific antigen

PSC — Prostate stem cells

PSEN — Presenilin

Ptch – Patched

Ptch — Protein patched homolog

PTEN — Phosphatase and tensin homolog

Ptf1 — Pancreas-specific transcription factor 1

pTHRp — Parathyroid hormone-related protein

PTP1B — Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 B

PYK2 — Protein tyrosine kinase FAK2

Q

Q-PCR — Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

R

RA — Retinoic acid

RA — Rheumatoid arthritis

 

Rac — Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate

RANKL — Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand

RAR — Retinoic acid receptor

Ras — Rat sarcoma protein family

RCC — Renal cell carcinoma

REX-1 — Retinoic acid-regulated zinc finger 1

RFP — Red fluorescent protein

RFS — Relapse-free survival

Rho — Ras homolog gene family

RISC — RNA-induced silencing complex

RNAi — RNA interference

RNF51 — RING finger protein 51

RONS — Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

ROS — Reactive oxygen species

RT-PCR — Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

RTKs — Receptor tyrosine kinases

rtTA — Reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator

S

SABR — Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy

SAHA — Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

SALL4 — Sal-like protein 4

SAZ — Segment addition zone

SCC — Squamous cell carcinoma

SCDSF — Stem cells differentiation stage factors

SCID — Severe combined immunodeficiency disease

SCLC — Small cell lung cancer

SCs — Stem cells

SDF-1 — Stromal cell-derived factor 1

SDF-1/CXCR12 — Stromal cell-derived factor-1

SDH — Succinate dehydrogenase

SETDB1 — SET domain bifurcated 1

SFN — Sulforaphane

SFRPs — Secreted frizzled-related proteins

SGZ — Subgranular zone

SH — Src homology

Shh — Sonic hedgehog

SHIP — Src homology 2-containing inositol-5′-phosphatase

siRNA — Small interfering RNA

SIRP — Signal regulatory protein

SIRT6 — Sirtuin 6

SL-IC — SCID leukemia-initiating cells

SLE — Systemic lupus erythematosus

SLGCs — Stem-like glioma cells

Smo — Smoothened

SMRT — Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor

SOCE — Store-operated Ca2+ entry

SOX2 — (Sex determining region Y)-box 2

SP — Side population

SP-C — Surfactant protein C

SPNs — Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms

SPPs — Signal peptide peptidases

SRS — Stereotactic radiosurgery

 

SSBs — Single-stranded breaks

SSEA-1 — Stage-specific embryonic antigen 1

STAP — Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency

STAT — Signal transducer and activator of transcription

Stat5-CA — Stat5 constitutively active

SuFu — Suppressor of fused

SVZ — Sub-ventricular zone

T

T-ALL — T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

T-TAC — Tumor transient amplifying cell

T-UCR — Transcribed ultraconserved region

TAA — Tumor-associated antigen

TACE — Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme TAMs — Tumor-associated macrophages

TBI — Total body irradiation

TCF — T-cell factor

TCF/LF — Transcription factor/lymphoid enhancer binding factor

TCGA — The Cancer Genome Atlas

TDECs — Tumor-derived endothelial cells

TET2 — Ten-eleven-translocation gene 2 tumor suppressor

TGF-β — Transforming growth factor-β

TGF-βR — Transforming growth factor-β receptor

TGFBR2 — transforming growth factor β receptor II

Th1 — T-cell helper type 1

TIMP-2 — Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2

TGF-β — Transforming growth factor–β

THPO — Thrombopoietin

TK — Thymidine kinase

TKIs — Tyrosine kinase inhibitors

TMD — Transmembrane domain

TMZ — Temozolomide

TNC — Tenascin C

TNF-α — Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

TR4 — Testicular nuclear receptor 4

TRAF — TNF receptor-associated factor

TRAIL — TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TRBP — Transactivation response RNA-binding protein

TS — Thymidylate synthase

TSGs — Tumor suppressor genes

TSLP — Thymic stromal-derived lymphopoietin

TTL — Time to development of leukemia

U

3UTR — 3′-Untranslated region

5UTR — 5′-Untranslated region

UGP2 — UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2

uPA — Urokinase-type plasminogen activator

uPAR — Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor

Upd — unpaired

UPR — Unfolded protein response

UPRT — Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

 

VCAM1 — Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1

VEGF — Vascular endothelial growth factor

VHL — Von Hippel-Lindau

VIP — Vasoactive intestinal peptide

VLA4/5 — Very late antigen 4 and 5

vWF — von Willebrand factor

W

WHO — World Health Organization

WIF-1 — Wnt inhibitory factor-1

WMISH — Whole-mount in situ hybridization

Wnt – Wingless

WNT — Wingless-type MMTV integration site family

WS — WHIM syndrome

Wt — Wild type

X

XIAP — X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein

Xist — X-inactive-specific transcript

Zeb — Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox

 

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