Oxford American handbook of oncology. Second Edition. Oxford University Press (2015)

  • Alcohol is implicated as a causal factor in several malignancies such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and esophagus and hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Excess alcohol intake has a positive association with tobacco consumption.
  • Alcohol and tobacco exposure may have a synergistic rather than additive effect on cancer incidence, but the association between the two can make assessment of the relative contribution of each difficult to elucidate.
  • Alcoholic cirrhosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, although excessive alcohol intake in the absence of cirrhosis has a less clear role.

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