Oxford American handbook of oncology. Second Edition. Oxford University Press (2015)
- Alcohol is implicated as a causal factor in several malignancies such as squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and esophagus and hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Excess alcohol intake has a positive association with tobacco consumption.
- Alcohol and tobacco exposure may have a synergistic rather than additive effect on cancer incidence, but the association between the two can make assessment of the relative contribution of each difficult to elucidate.
- Alcoholic cirrhosis is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, although excessive alcohol intake in the absence of cirrhosis has a less clear role.