Oxford American handbook of oncology. Second Edition. Oxford University Press (2015)
Other exposures account for <5% of the cancer burden. Many chemical carcinogens have been identified.
- Dye and textile workers (naphythylamines): bladder cancers
- Chemical and rubber workers (benzene): hematological malignancies
- Vinyl chloride: angiosarcoma of liver
- A sbestos exposure: lung cancer, mesothelioma (notifiable)
- Beryllium, chromium, nickel: lung cancer
- Many chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer are carcinogenic, e.g., alkylating agents.
- High-dose diethylstilbesterol during pregnancy, used in the 1960s to reduce the risk of miscarriage, in the development of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina at the time of menarche in a small percentage of the offspring of exposed women.
- Immunosuppressants have been associated with non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas.
- Causal carcinogenic links with environmental pollutants have been difficult to establish.
- Estimates suggest 1% of U.S. lung cancer deaths are attributable to air pollution.
- Incidence of many cancers varies greatly between geographical areas: this includes variation between countries and between different regions within countries.
- Variations reflect complex interactions between genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors.
- Migration between areas of contrasting incidence: a migrant population usually acquires the cancer pattern of their adopted country—i.e., environmental rather than genetic factors dominate, except in rare familial cases.
- Cancer incidence can vary between socioeconomic groups.
- Epidemiological studies continue to improve understanding of the etiology of different cancers and aid in development of strategies for disease prevention.