Oxford American handbook of oncology. Second Edition. Oxford University Press (2015)

  • Many cancers occur more frequently in one gender or the other, e.g., stomach cancer is twice as frequent in men.
  • It is difficult to distinguish innate differences in susceptibility from differences caused by other risk factors. For example, the greater incidence of carcinoma of the bladder in men was thought to represent an innate difference in susceptibility, but, when exposed to the same occupational carcinogens and tobacco smoke, women are at least as susceptible to the disease.

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